What Colenso might have seen

Mt Bruce is a legendary in New Zealand biology as it was the place that the takahe, thought extinct but rediscovered in 1948, was brought back from the brink of extinction. It also legendary as being one of the last remnants of the Seventy Mile Bush. The Seventy Mile Bush was a name I occasionally came across but didn’t fully appreciate what it was until I started reading about William Colenso and his mycological collecting there:

IN the autumn of this year I again sent a lot of Fungi to Kew, London (with other plants, both Phænogams and Cryptogams), which I had discovered at various times during the last four years in my visits to the dense forests and deep glens of the Seventy-mile Bush district, County of Waipawa [Colenso, 1890]

The Seventy Mile Bush [from Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand]

The Seventy Mile Bush [from Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand]

A forest lost

The Seventy Mile Bush was a huge area of dense forest stretching from Masterton to central Hawkes Bay and across the east coast. Most of it was cleared for farming. In the 1870s the New Zealand Government bought the 942 ha Mt Bruce block as a forest reserve [administered by the Forest Service], with 55 ha being designated a native bird reserve under the control of the Wildlife Service. The government restructures of the late 1980s saw many of the government agencies responsible for conservation rolled into a single Department of Conservation which became responsible for the reserves.

Five Mile Avenue, circa 1875, Eketahuna [photo James Bragge, from Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa]

Five Mile Avenue, circa 1875, Eketahuna [photo James Bragge, from Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa]

In 2001 the entire Mt Bruce block, of 942 ha, was reunited into a single reserve. And then in 2013, its running passed to a community based charitable trust – The Pukaha Mount Bruce Board is a charitable trust.

Bioblitz 2016

In late February of this year, Pukaha Mount Bruce held a bioblitz. I was going to go and help along with some other mycologist, Barbara Paulus and Di Batchelor. But because of the drought, we decided it would better to wait until the autumn. Barbara and I finally got to there 5 June and here is what we found that day [note that I still have some work to do on the identifications].

The fungi

Mycena sp. in tawa forest – on a fallen log. Note: Maybe close to Marie Taylor’s Mycena dorotheae.

Mycena sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena pura (?) in tawa forest growing in leaf litter.

Mycena pura ? [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena pura ? [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hypholoma acutum in tawa forest on a fallen log. Note: Rubbish photo, sorry.

2016.06.11 Hypholoma acutum

Hypholoma acutum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hypholoma brunneum in tawa forest – on a fallen log. Note: on the same log as Hypholoma acutum.

Hypholoma brunneum [photo Geoff Ridley}

Hypholoma brunneum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena roseoflava in tawa forest – on a stump.

Mycena roseoflava [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena roseoflava [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida in tawa forest – on fallen wood.

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Gyronemma sp. in tawa forest – on rotten tree fern rachis.

Gyronemma sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Gyronemma sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zealandiae in tawa forest – on fallen logs.

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera in tawa forest – on fallen branches. Note: The orange colour has washed out in the photo.

Favolaschia calocera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crinipellis procera in tawa forest – on leaf and twig litter.

Crinipellis procera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crinipellis procera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. in tawa forest amongst litter.

Hygrophorus sp [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. in tawa forest – on leaf litter.

Psathyrella [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. - black spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. – black spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena  mariae or parsonsii (?) in tawa forest – on stump.

Mycena mariae or parsonsii (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena mariae or parsonsii (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is yet. In tawa forest in litter.

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Xylaria sp. in tawa forest on a fallen log.

2016.06.11 Fingers

Xylaria sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. in tawa forest in litter.

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coral fungus in tawa forest amoungst litter. Note: I need to do some work on this yet.

Coral fungus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coral fungus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cyathus novaezelandiae in tawa forest on fallen wood.

Cyathus novaezelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cyathus novaezelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus in tawa forest – on stump.

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Morganella compacta in tawa forest – on fallen log.

Morganella compacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Morganella compacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [= Weraroa erythrocephala] in tawa forest – in leaf litter.

2016.06.11 Leratiomyces

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Conchomyces bursaeformis in tawa forest – on standing dead trunk.

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

2016.06.11 Unknown 3

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

2016.06.11 Unknown 2

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Clavogaster novozelandicus Psilocybe weraroa [= Weraroa virescens] in tawa forest – in leaf litter.

Clavogaster novozelandicus [photo Geof Ridley]

Clavogaster novozelandicus [photo Geof Ridley]

Cortinarius sp. in red beech forest.

Cortinarius sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota sp. in red beech forest – in leaf litter.

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) in red beech forest.

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma mediorufum (?) spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma mediorufum (?) spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus in red beech forest.

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Russula sp. in red beech forest.

Russula sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Russula sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Galerina patagonica in tawa forest – on fallen log.

Galerina patagonica [photo Geoff Ridley]

Galerina patagonica [photo Geoff Ridley]

Chalciporus piperatus in Douglas fir stand. Note:  Amanita muscaria also present but very rotten.

Chalciporus piperatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Chalciporus piperatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Futher reading 

Colenso, W. 1890. An enumeration of fungi recently discovered in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 23: 391-398.

 

 

 

 

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Otari – Wilton’s Bush Fungal Foray 2013

You can read more about Otari-Wilton’s Bush from the foray report for 2011 and 2012, and at the Otari Wilton’s Bush website.

This last summer has been notable in being dry and followed by a reasonably wet autumn (see The drought has broken). So there were plenty of fungi around for the foray, 25-26 May 2013. Below is the list of what we did see.

Otari garden – an exhibition garden of low growing New Zealand native plants but not native to the local area) mulched with wood chips.

Lepiota sp. [a parasol] – this was in the garden under Nothofagus solandri. This is the first collection of this species at Otari.

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Leratiomyces ceres [scarlet roundhead] – on woodchips. For more on this mushroom go to my blog here.

Weraroa erythrocephala [scarlet pouch] – in the wood chip mulch and in litter in mixed forest.

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Clitocybe nebularis [cloudy funnelcap] – not so much in the garden as down the bank in the bush. Large mushrooms up 25cm diameter and usually in groups or even arranged in arcs in the bush.

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Lacramaria lacrymabunda [weeping widow] – solid mushrooms, with a shaggy surface, mottled blackish kills, and a fibrous ring at top of stem. This is the first collection of this species at Otari.

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Beech (Nothofagus) grove – this grove was planted as beech is not native to the Wellington peninsular. We haven’t in the past found much here but being a month later there is a lot more to be seen.

Russula acrolamellata [ugly chalkcap]. This mushroom has a brown to golden cap and white stem. Like all chalk cap the stem snaps when bent. If you are prepared to chew a little of the gill tissue on the tip of your tongue it should be quite hot hence the name acrolamellata or acrid gills. We also saw it under kanuka.

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Amanita nothofagi [charcoal flycap] – this is a mycorrhizal species which means it is only found growing on the roots of southern beech or teatree. It is related to the scarlet flycap, with its red cap and white warts, seen under pines. Several mushrooms were present.

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Coprinellus (Coprinus) disseminatus [sociable inkcap] – A common inkcap found growing on dead wood in all kinds of habitats.

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Tylopylus brunneus [cocoa bolete] – Last collected here in 2011. This bolete bruises blue-grey.

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I put the cut fruitbody, from above, on paper to dry and the fluid from it seeped into the paper where it has reacted with the air and turned the classic blue of this reaction.

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Circular walk from Information Centre – this is an area of original broadleaf-podocarp forest but with an underplanted collection of plants that would be expected in this type of forest.

Micromphale sp. [garlic shanklet] – on the bark of living totara. If you cup one of these mushroom in your hands and put your hands over your nose you can smell the distinct odour of gallic.

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Agaricus sp. [a mushroom] – Growing next to boardwalk in kauri litter. Tall brown mushroom. This is the first collection of this species at Otari. This is very similar to Marie Taylor’s collection GMT737 (PDD84327) which she collected in 1972 from under kauri in Northcote, Auckland.

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84327c

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Lepiota sp. [a parasol] – This was growing under totara.

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Mycena pura [lilac helmet] – This distinctive lilac mushroom was growing in the leaf litter.

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Favolashia calocera (orange poreconch) – on fallen branches.

Agrocybe parasitica [tree swordbelt] – on living hardwood.

Agrocybes parasitica 2013

Heimiomyces neovelutipes [bush shank] – Growing on decaying wood.

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Armillaria novaezelandae [olive honeycap] – on rotten wood.

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Mycena sp. [a helmet] – A very dark coloured Mycena growing on wood. It is similar to Ian Hoods figure 143. It also looks like Jerry Cooper’s  Mycena sp. ‘Ahuriri Reserve (PDD80918)’.

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Lentinellus novae-zelandiae [bush shiitake] – on rotting log.

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