Science Sunday at the Wellington Botanic Garden

Wellington Botanic Garden ran a Science Sunday today in the Begonia House. It was an opportunity for Wellingtonians to discover the science behind their Garden and what contributions it makes to biodiversity and other areas of science. It also included releasing the findings of the BioBlitze held in April. And despite the rain I did a wander round to see what, if anything, was fruiting.

The Pinetum

I couldn’t believe my luck as I dropped down the slope from the Herb Garden into the Pinetum. Since 2014 I have been returning here in the hope of finding a Boletus that I found but had not kept a specimen of it. And here it was a single huge fruitbody.

Boletus edulis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Boletus edulis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Boletus edulis [photo Geoff Ridley]

It was growing about 1.5m from the base of a maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) in a grove of this species although, there is a single Pinus radiata as well. This is in all probability edible bolete (Boletus edulis) and has you can see from the dollar coin this fruitbody is the size of a dinner plate.

Boletus edulis – the size of a dinner plate [photo Geoff Ridley]

A few metres further along the path there is a grove of mixed cypresses. At the border between the pines and the cypresses was a sticky bun bolete (Suillus granulatus). Note is yellow, non-bluing flesh and a lack of a ring on the stem.

Suillus granulatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Suillus granulatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Suillus granulatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Suillus granulatus – non-bluing flesh [photo Geoff Ridley]

About a metre away was the yellow flycap (Amanita junquillea). I found this species for the first time in the Garden at the BioBlitz in April.

Amanita junquillea [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita junquillea [photo Geoff Ridley]

The West Entrance

Near the West Entrance on Glenmore St is a Sequoia, or is it a Metasequoia (tree number 0645) [see additional note at end of this blog].

Tree 0645 (photo Geoff Ridley]

This tree has wood chip mulch under and as I approached I could see the bright colouring of the scarlet pouch (Leratiomyces erythrocephalus). This has fruited frequently under this tree over the last five years.

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Also present was the bluing pouch (Psilocybe weraroa). This is the first time I have collected this species from wood chip mulch.

Psilocybe weraroa [photo Geoff Ridley]

The tree is bare of leaves at the moment and looking up there is a long dead strip running almost two thirds the height of the tree. This has been colonised by the woodear jelly (Auricularia cornea).

Auricularia cornea [photo Geoff Ridley]

Auricularia cornea [photo Geoff Ridley]

Additional note 02.10.2019: This is Metasequoia glyptostroboides or dawn redwood. This specimen tree is recorded in the New Zealand Tree Register. It includes the note that:

A rare tree of this age and species in the Wellington area. This may be the single surviving tree propagated from seed by C. M. Smith (former Director of the Botany Division – DSIR). … ‘Through the good offices of Col. J. K. Howard, … a few small seed samples were sent to New Zealand by Dr. E. D. Merrill, lately of the Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University. From these seed samples, I secured about a tablespoon of partly cleaned seed for trial sowings. … Smith also send seed to A. W. Wastney in Nelson. Both men germinated their seeds in October 1949. Smith was successful in cultivating only one seedling and Wastney was fortunate enough to obtain three seedlings from his efforts. … No record has been found to establish where Smith planted his tree but he did have an association with the Wellington Botanical Gardens and it is assumed he may have planted it here. The tree would have been of sufficient size to have been planted out in the spring of 1951.

The Register also records the tree’s health as:

In very good health 2009. The increasing numbers of native kaka in the Wellington area are stripping bark from this and other significant trees in the gardens (2010).

The long dead strip in the main stem might be associated with kaka damage?

The First Photo

Last month I took possession of set of approximately 300 slides that were part of the Levin Native Flora Club slide library – E.F.A. Garner fungi collection. The oldest photograph in this collection is from 1964. This got me wondering what was the oldest photo of a New Zealand mushroom. So, I went looking but with the criteria that the photo had to :

  • Be of what is often called the “larger, fleshy fungi” so excluding brackets and corticioid fungi
  • Have the mushroom as the subject
  • Be of a fresh mushrooms and not of dried herbarium/fungarium specimens

So, going through my books and papers the oldest photos that I know of are in G.H. Cunningham’s The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand published in 1942. This book contains a number of black and white photos that fit the criteria. There are twenty-five plates/pages of photos taken in the laboratory, and not in the field, and in many cases, it is difficult to tell whether they are fresh or dried. So, I’m only showing the first two plates. In some cases this may be the second publication of a particular photo as Cunningham’s books where compilations of his papers published in the 1920s and 30s. I have noted the earlier dates where I know them and provided the currently accepted name.

Plate 7 has five photos: 1 & 2) Phallobata alba (as Hysterangium lobatum), first published in 1926. 3) Clavogaster virescens (as Secotium virescens), previously published?, 4) Rhizopogon rubescens, previously published?, and 5) Rossbeevera pachydermis (as Gautieria novae-zelandiae), not previously published.

Plate 7 [from Cunningham 1942]

Plate 8 has four photos: 1 & 2) Cortinarius porphyroideus (as Secotium porphyreum), first published 1924, 3) Leratiomyces erythrocephalus (as Secotium erythrocephalum) previoudly published?, and 4) Clavogaster virescens (as Secotium virescens), previously published?.

Plate 7 [from Cunningham 1942]

The next photo was published by the French mycologist Roger Heim who visited New Zealand in 1949. The photo is small and part of a plate of three photos published in 1951. They show Cortinarius elaiochrous (as Cuphocybe olivacea) and Cortinarius alboroseus (as Cuphocybe alborosea) having been collected and laid on log for the photo. This is at The Paradise, north-east of Glenorchy on Lake Wakatipu in beech forest.

[from Heim 1952]

The next photo is from a paper by John Gilmour in 1954. Its shows a cluster of Armillaria sp, probably A. novae-zelandiae but labelled a A. mellea as it was thought at the time, at the base of a eucalypt. The photo is interesting in being the first field photo. I like it as it uses a coin for scale but interestinging a British penny (with Britannia) rather than a New Zealand penny which would have had a tui perched in a kowhai. In the same paper, there is also photos of Armillaria disease symptoms where he uses a New Zealand half crown for scale.

Armillaria sp. [from Gilmour 1954]

The use of and availability of photo of fungi is a recent phenomenon that can be attributed to the easy availability of digital cameras and mobile phones. Before that you hardly ever saw a photo of a fungus in New Zealand.

Nothing changes

Yesterday I gave a lecture, well at least an animated conversation, on fungi at Nga Manu Nature Reserve in Waikanae. This I will come back to in a later blog. At the end of the lecture I took possession of set of approximately 300 slides This was the E.F.A. Garner fungi collection and had been part of the Levin Flora Club slide library. A little digging found that the full name was the Levin Native Flora Club and I assume was the local botany society. Again, I’ll revisit this in a later blog.

When I got home I started to dig but got waylaid by discovering a website “New Zealand Regional Botanical Society Journals” that had databased all the journal/newsletter/bulletins of the Auckland, Rotorua, Wellington, Canterbury and Otago botanical societies. As I couldn’t help myself I searched the Wellington Botanical Society Bulletin for fungi and discovered small articles written by Greta Cone (AKA Greta Stevenson). I have blogged about Greta before as she laid the foundations for the study of agarics and boletes in New Zealand between the end of WWII and 1964. Here is a short item she wrote for the Wellington Botanical Society Bulletin 16: 8, August 1947:

A FUNGUS GARDEN.

The exhibit of larger fungi which were gathered by several members for display at our reception on May 19th made a very colourful ‘Fungus Garden’. The bright shades, beautiful shapes and great variety of these plants are surprising to many people. They are abundant in the bush only at the time of year when few folk are abroad for they fruit during autumn and winter. They grow very fast but last for a short time and so are easily missed.

Cortinarius porphyroideus, York Bay [photo Geoff Ridley]

Many of them like the brilliant purple puffball, Secotium porphyreum [Cortinarius porphyroideus = Thaxterogaster porphyreus] and the small dainty clubs, Clavaria spp. of all colours, may fruit half-hidden in the litter of the forest floor. When one has developed an eye for fungi one can spot these shy specimens and unearth them, often to the surprise of others who would walk past the same place seeing nothing particular. There is often something of a camouflage effect when the fungi are growing in the bush.

Clavaria zollingeri, Wellington Botanic Garden [photo Christopher Stephens]

When they are gathered up and many put together the bright conspicuous colours are striking, but in their natural haunts they harmonise with their surroundings. A few always shout their presence. The common puffball, Secotium erythrocephalum [Leratiomyces erythrocephalus = Weraroa erythrocephala], can seldom hide its brilliant red head, and the introduced scarlet toadstool, Amanita muscaria, is always a startling sight.

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus, Wellington Botanic Garden [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria, Wellington Botanic Garden [photo Geoff Ridley]

In order to get for our show some perfect specimens of this very decorative species, one of our members hunted long to find some which had not been handled and broken by someone else. She crawled into a dense thicket in the middle of a place where they were growing in abundance, collected the elegant toadstools and safely made away out with the fragile load which duly appeared in the fungus collection. Greta B. Cone.

What is interesting is that I talked about the same species in my lecture at Nga Manu. Nothing changes.

Otari-Wilton’s Bush Annual Foray, 28 May 2017

 

This year the foray was held on a cold damp day in May rather than April. This year has been cooler and consistently wetter then the last couple of years. This has meant that fungi have been fruiting sporadically over a much longer period of time. Here is what we say today.

Southern Beech Grove

This is the first Cortinarius / Thaxterogater found at Otari-Wilton’s bush.

Cortinarius epiphaeus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Plant Collection below the Cockayne Lookout

The fungi in the plant collection garden are all growing in the thick wood mulch used in this area,

Psathyrella sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lycoperdon perlatum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leratiomyces ceres [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota aspera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Kauri Lawn and Fernery

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crucibulum laevae [photo Geoff Ridley]

This Psathyrella has a faintly reddish tinge to the gill margin and the cap is hygrophanous. Possibly around Psathyrella corrugis.

Psathyrella aff. corrugis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaris novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Stump with Armillaria novae-zelandia, Favolaschia calocera, Auricularia cornea, and a small Ganoderma [photo Geoff Ridley]

Auricularia cornea [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera and Auricularis corneus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Heimiomyces neovelutipes [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Circular Walk Below the Bowling Club

Hohenbuehelia or Resupinatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Read about the foray in the Otari – Wilton’s Bush Trust News and Views, September 2017

Fungus hunting in Otago

Flat hunting in Otago

My son is moving down to Dunedin to start his PhD. So he and I went down last weekend to find a flat. We found one just above the town belt and a 16-minute walk from the University of Otago central library.

It was also a chance to walk along Queens Drive which meanders through the town belt that separates the city on the flat from the hill suburbs above. I first walked this way when I had just finished my PhD and had my first job lecturing in the Botany Department here.

Dunedin Town Belt, Newington Ave [photo Geoff Ridley]

Dunedin Town Belt, Newington Ave [photo Geoff Ridley]

The enjoyment of walks and rambles …

The reason for walking the town belt this time was to get some photos for a blog about Helen Kirkland Dalrymple. My first encounter with her writing was reading Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand during my PhD. It’s a slim book of 30 pages published in Dunedin in 1940. And, ignoring scientific publications, is the first popular book of fungi to be published in New Zealand. In fact, there would not be another until 1970 when Marie Taylor’s Mushrooms and Toadstools in New Zealand was published.

Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand.

Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand with Leratiomyces erythrocephalus on the cover.

All I know about Helen Dalrymple came from a ‘gallery of naturalists’ that Otago Museum has on its top floor in the old wing. If anyone has a photo of her I would love to see it [see PS below]. The museum exhibit had this to say:

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple (c. 1883-1943)

Was an enthusiastic botanist. She was born in Birmingham but spent her early years at Puerua, near Balclutha, where her father was Presbyterian minister. In 1898 she began attending Otago Girls High School, and in 1902 was awarded the Women’s Scholarship at Otago University. She graduated BA in 1906 and taught at Winton and Napier.

In 1913 she joined the staff of Otago Girls High School and taught English, Latin and Botany for 25 years. It is mainly as a botanist that she is remembered, particularly for her field trips, expeditiously arranging forays into the Town Belt to fit into an hour long lesson or longer excursions to Signal Hill in search of ground orchids.

Helen Dalrymple spent many hours on her delicate water colours, mainly of native plants, which she later used to illustrate her books, Orchid Hunting in Otago (1937) and Fungus Hunting in Otago (1940).

A keen member of the Naturalist Field Club she was regarded as a local authority on orchids and mycology. Gentle in speech and manner, she nevertheless had great determination and strength of character and when in 1915, and later in 1941, it was suggested that the club go into recess it was largely owing to her efforts that it kept going.

Display at Otago Museum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Display at Otago Museum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Miss Finlayson was afraid to open the box

I love Helen’s writing style and casualness and think if she was alive today she would be a blogger:

Earth stars are delightful objects. The first one I ever saw was picked up by an enthusiastic Field Clubber many years ago on his Sunday afternoon walk round the Town Belt. He put it carefully in a matchbox, took it to church that evening, and passed the box on to Miss Finlayson who happened to be sitting in the same seat. At first Miss Finlayson was afraid to open the box, thinking some strange insect might jump out; but finally she did and later handed the specimen over to me for recording.

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [by H.K. Dalrymple]

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [by H.K. Dalrymple]

Helen included a number of line drawings in her book the last was this view towards Otago Boys High with the tower visible above the bush. We went seeking this view but I think that Moana Pool has been built across it and this was the best I could do.

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [photo Geoff Ridley]

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [photo Geoff Ridley]

Reference

Dalrymple, HK, 1940. Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand. Coulls Somerville Wilkie Limited, Dunedin

PS 18 September 2016

Conor sent a link to this picture of Helen Kirkland Dalrymple

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple [photo University of Otago]

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple [photo University of Otago]

The photo and the comment about her school field trips to the town belt remind me of Ronald Searle’s Belles of St Trinian’s cartoons.

[Ronald Searle , 1951]

[Ronald Searle , 1951]

What Colenso might have seen

Mt Bruce is a legendary in New Zealand biology as it was the place that the takahe, thought extinct but rediscovered in 1948, was brought back from the brink of extinction. It also legendary as being one of the last remnants of the Seventy Mile Bush. The Seventy Mile Bush was a name I occasionally came across but didn’t fully appreciate what it was until I started reading about William Colenso and his mycological collecting there:

IN the autumn of this year I again sent a lot of Fungi to Kew, London (with other plants, both Phænogams and Cryptogams), which I had discovered at various times during the last four years in my visits to the dense forests and deep glens of the Seventy-mile Bush district, County of Waipawa [Colenso, 1890]

The Seventy Mile Bush [from Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand]

The Seventy Mile Bush [from Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand]

A forest lost

The Seventy Mile Bush was a huge area of dense forest stretching from Masterton to central Hawkes Bay and across the east coast. Most of it was cleared for farming. In the 1870s the New Zealand Government bought the 942 ha Mt Bruce block as a forest reserve [administered by the Forest Service], with 55 ha being designated a native bird reserve under the control of the Wildlife Service. The government restructures of the late 1980s saw many of the government agencies responsible for conservation rolled into a single Department of Conservation which became responsible for the reserves.

Five Mile Avenue, circa 1875, Eketahuna [photo James Bragge, from Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa]

Five Mile Avenue, circa 1875, Eketahuna [photo James Bragge, from Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa]

In 2001 the entire Mt Bruce block, of 942 ha, was reunited into a single reserve. And then in 2013, its running passed to a community based charitable trust – The Pukaha Mount Bruce Board is a charitable trust.

Bioblitz 2016

In late February of this year, Pukaha Mount Bruce held a bioblitz. I was going to go and help along with some other mycologist, Barbara Paulus and Di Batchelor. But because of the drought, we decided it would better to wait until the autumn. Barbara and I finally got to there 5 June and here is what we found that day [note that I still have some work to do on the identifications].

The fungi

Mycena sp. in tawa forest – on a fallen log. Note: Maybe close to Marie Taylor’s Mycena dorotheae.

Mycena sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena pura (?) in tawa forest growing in leaf litter.

Mycena pura ? [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena pura ? [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hypholoma acutum in tawa forest on a fallen log. Note: Rubbish photo, sorry.

2016.06.11 Hypholoma acutum

Hypholoma acutum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hypholoma brunneum in tawa forest – on a fallen log. Note: on the same log as Hypholoma acutum.

Hypholoma brunneum [photo Geoff Ridley}

Hypholoma brunneum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena roseoflava in tawa forest – on a stump.

Mycena roseoflava [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena roseoflava [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida in tawa forest – on fallen wood.

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Nidula candida [photo Geoff Ridley]

Gyronemma sp. in tawa forest – on rotten tree fern rachis.

Gyronemma sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Gyronemma sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zealandiae in tawa forest – on fallen logs.

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaria novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera in tawa forest – on fallen branches. Note: The orange colour has washed out in the photo.

Favolaschia calocera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crinipellis procera in tawa forest – on leaf and twig litter.

Crinipellis procera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crinipellis procera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. in tawa forest amongst litter.

Hygrophorus sp [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. in tawa forest – on leaf litter.

Psathyrella [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. - black spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp. – black spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena  mariae or parsonsii (?) in tawa forest – on stump.

Mycena mariae or parsonsii (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Mycena mariae or parsonsii (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is yet. In tawa forest in litter.

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Not sure what this is. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Xylaria sp. in tawa forest on a fallen log.

2016.06.11 Fingers

Xylaria sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. in tawa forest in litter.

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophorus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coral fungus in tawa forest amoungst litter. Note: I need to do some work on this yet.

Coral fungus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coral fungus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cyathus novaezelandiae in tawa forest on fallen wood.

Cyathus novaezelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cyathus novaezelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus in tawa forest – on stump.

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Morganella compacta in tawa forest – on fallen log.

Morganella compacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Morganella compacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [= Weraroa erythrocephala] in tawa forest – in leaf litter.

2016.06.11 Leratiomyces

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Conchomyces bursaeformis in tawa forest – on standing dead trunk.

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

2016.06.11 Unknown 3

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

2016.06.11 Unknown 2

Conchomyces bursaeformis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Clavogaster novozelandicus Psilocybe weraroa [= Weraroa virescens] in tawa forest – in leaf litter.

Clavogaster novozelandicus [photo Geof Ridley]

Clavogaster novozelandicus [photo Geof Ridley]

Cortinarius sp. in red beech forest.

Cortinarius sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota sp. in red beech forest – in leaf litter.

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) in red beech forest.

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma  mediorufum (?) [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma mediorufum (?) spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma mediorufum (?) spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus in red beech forest.

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius rotundisporus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Russula sp. in red beech forest.

Russula sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Russula sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Galerina patagonica in tawa forest – on fallen log.

Galerina patagonica [photo Geoff Ridley]

Galerina patagonica [photo Geoff Ridley]

Chalciporus piperatus in Douglas fir stand. Note:  Amanita muscaria also present but very rotten.

Chalciporus piperatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Chalciporus piperatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Futher reading 

Colenso, W. 1890. An enumeration of fungi recently discovered in New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 23: 391-398.

 

 

 

 

A tumble of scarlet pouches

Walking home this afternoon I saw this group of scarlet pouches [Leratiomyces erythrocephalus = Weraroa erythocephala] in on the edge of the Early Settles Memorial Lawn in the Bolton Street Memorial Park. This area has an over storey of exotic pines and oaks with regenerating native bush amongst the graves and has also been mulched with wood chip. From the path, you look down an amphitheatre of stone steps to the lawn. The scarlet pouches looked like Jaffas that have tumbled down the tiered flooring in a picture theatre.

Early Settles Memorial Lawn [photo Geoff Ridley]

Early Settles Memorial Lawn [photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouches (photo Geoff Ridley]

Jaffas are a kiwi iconic candy and only found here in New Zealand (and also Australia, but shhh). They were around long ago, and if you ask some of the ‘older’ generation they will tell you stories of rolling jaffa’s down the picture theatre (cinema) aisle as a child. That means they must be at least 50 years old! We hold these Jaffa’s with such prestige that as part of the Cadbury chocolate festival, we race jaffas down the steepest street in the world [in Dunedin] – just to make a statement. The jaffa is made from delectable dark chocolate covered in an orange flavoured candy shell. [from NZsnowtours]

The Cadbury Jaffa Race has been run down the worldÕs steepest street, Baldwin Street, in Dunedin, New Zealand, since 2002. It has raised more than $450,000 for local charities including Cure Kids, Canteen, Dunedin Kindergarten Association, The Malcam Charitable Trust, The Otago Community Hospice, primary schools throughout Otago and Southland and nationally through Parents Centre NZ Inc. [photo DunedinNZ.com]

The Cadbury Jaffa Race has been run down the world’s steepest street, Baldwin Street, in Dunedin, New Zealand, since 2002. It has raised more than $450,000 for local charities including Cure Kids, Canteen, Dunedin Kindergarten Association, The Malcam Charitable Trust, The Otago Community Hospice, primary schools throughout Otago and Southland and nationally through Parents Centre NZ Inc. [photo DunedinNZ.com]

Read more about Leratiomyces here