Fungi of The Rigi

3 June 2017

On the way to the supermarket I saw this large troop of Psathyrella growing on wood mulch in Glenmore St, Wellington, just up the hill from The Rigi. (If you are intrigued by the name The Rigi read more here.)

The Rigi and Glenmore St intesection 2013 [photo Amy Jackman]

Large fruiting of Psathyrella on wood mulch [photo Geoff Ridley]

These were Psathyrella microrhiza. Note the colour change as the caps dry out with age as a result of air replacing water between the hyphae that makes up the cap tissue. This is is known as hygrophanous.

Psathyrella microrhiza [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella microrhiza [photo Geoff Ridley]

Just as I was about to go I noticed that some of the Psathyrella near the edge of the mulched area, where there was more grass, were more reddish. I grabbed a few without stopping to get a picture. Looking at one of the pictures of the whole area you can just make out these pinkish brown specimens with more conical caps than the Psathyrella microrhiza.

Psathyrella bipellis marked by the arrows [photo Geoff Ridley]

This appears to be Psathyrella bipellis which has a reddish brown cap and stipe. There are a number of Psathyrella species fruiting on wood mulch in Wellington and I need to spend some time and see if I can sort them out.

Psathyrella bipellis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amazing what you find on the way to the supermarket!

Otari-Wilton’s Bush Annual Foray, 28 May 2017


This year the foray was held on a cold damp day in May rather than April. This year has been cooler and consistently wetter then then the last couple of years. This has meant that fungi have been fruiting sporadically over a much longer period of time. Here is what we say today.

Southern Beech Grove

This is the first Cortinarius / Thaxterogater found at Otari-Wilton’s bush.

Cortinarius epiphaeus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Plant Collection below the Cockayne Lookout

The fungi in the plant collection garden are all growing in the thick wood mulch used in this area,

Psathyrella sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lycoperdon perlatum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leratiomyces ceres [photo Geoff Ridley]

Lepiota aspera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Kauri Lawn and Fernery

Leratiomyces erythrocephalus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Crucibulum laevae [photo Geoff Ridley]

This Psathyrella has faintly reddish tinge to the gill margin and the cap is hygrophanous. Possibly around Psathyrella corrugis.

Psathyrella aff. corrugis [photo Geoff Ridley]

Armillaris novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

Stump with Armillaria novae-zelandia, Favolaschia calocera, Auricularia cornea, and a small Ganoderma [photo Geoff Ridley]

Auricularia cornea [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus disseminatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Favolaschia calocera and Auricularis corneus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Heimiomyces neovelutipes [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Circular Walk Below the Bowling Club

Hohenbuehelia or Resupinatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

The first mushroom for 2017

Walking in the wellington Botanic Garden today I saw this young Agrocybe parasitica. It was growing from a well decayed branch stub of titoki [Alectryon excelsus] on the Serpentine Way track behind the Dell.

Agrocybe parasitica [photo Geoff Ridley]

Agrocybe parasitica [photo Geoff Ridley]

 A guide to this blog

To better find your way around Spores, Moulds and Fungi I have added a couple of extra pages:

  • Blogs – this is a numbered chronological list of all blogs I have written.
  • Index – this is an alphabetical index of all Latin names for fungi used in the blog. There are active links to every blog where the name is mentioned and usually a photo as well.
  • Readings – this is a chronological list of interesting web articles and blogs on fungi.
  • Stuff – this is just interesting bits and pieces that I find.




An afterimage

The gentle rains of spring

It has been a bit of a wet spring so far this year in Wellington. Yesterday I took advantage in a break in the weather to get the rank grass mowed and a bit of tidying in the garden. This included pulling weeds out of the cracks in the concrete paths and steps.

A wet grey spring day, Northland, Wellington [photo Geoff Ridley]

A wet grey spring day, Northland, Wellington [photo Geoff Ridley]

What’s that …

As a pulled on the leaves of a young dandelion they broke away from the roots. Turning one of the leaves over in my hand I saw a circular black patch. My immediate thought it was a clutch of insect eggs. But looking closer I could see that it radial makings and of course that sparked my interest and I took it inside to have a closer look.

The round dark marking on the underside of a dandelion leaf [photo Geoff Ridley]

The round dark marking on the underside of a dandelion leaf [photo Geoff Ridley]

Looking at it with a hand lens I recognised it straight away as the remains of the cap of a coprinoid mushroom. I have blogged about the larger coprinoid mushroom s before, e.g. see Coprinopsis atramentariaThe powerlifters of the fungal world, Coprinus microcephalus – Coprinus and the compost bin, and Parasola plicataThe drought has broken. Also check the Index of species for blogs on Coprinellus disseminates, Coprinellus micaceus, Coprinopsis lagopus, and Parasola leiocephala.

A bowl of dung

However there a many small species of coprinoid mushrooms that are less than 10 mm in diameter and may only be 10-20 mm tall. I saw these little coprinoids for the first time when studying dung fungi (coprhilous fungi) with Anne Bell. Ann is an expert in this ecological group and has published a beautiful book on New Zealand dung fungi.

Coprinoid dung fungi [Figure from Ann Bell, 1983]

Coprinoid dung fungi [Figure from Ann Bell, 1983]

At that time I was incubating lumps of horse and sheep dung in glass bowls with a flat sheet of glass over the top to help maintain humidity. These little coprinoids would grow up from the dung surface and if they reached the glass cover the cap would adhere to the moisture on the glass. The mushroom would then collapse away leaving the cap to breakdown and only an image, consisting of black spores would remain on the glass.

There is a cool little video of coprinoids growing from dung at Gettyimages.

The afterimage

The distinct afterimage of radiating gills [photo Geoff Ridley]

The distinct afterimage of radiating gills [photo Geoff Ridley]

Looking at my leaf with a hand lens I could clearly see the image of a mushroom cap (about 5 mm diameter) with its radial gills marked by a greater concentration of spores. The small mushroom must have touched the surface of the damp leaf, stuck to it then died away leaving only the fungal spores. What species it might be I don’t know.



Bell A, 1983. Dung fungi: an illustrated guide to coprophilous fungi in New Zealand. Victoria University Press, Wellington [this book is still available from Victoria University Press]


Fungus hunting in Otago

Flat hunting in Otago

My son is moving down to Dunedin to start his PhD. So he and I went down last weekend to find a flat. We found one just above the town belt and a 16 minute walk from the University of Otago central library.

It was also a chance to walk along Queens Drive which meanders through the town belt that separates the city on the flat from the hill suburbs above. I first walked this way when I had just finished my PhD and had my first job lecturing in the Botany Department here.

Dunedin Town Belt, Newington Ave [photo Geoff Ridley]

Dunedin Town Belt, Newington Ave [photo Geoff Ridley]

The enjoyment of walks and rambles …

The reason for walking the town belt this time was to get some photos for a blog about Helen Kirkland Dalrymple. My first encounter with her writing was reading Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand during my PhD. It’s a slim book of 30 pages published in Dunedin in 1940. And, ignoring scientific publications, is the first popular book of fungi to be published in New Zealand. In fact, there would not be another until 1970 when Marie Taylor’s Mushrooms and Toadstools in New Zealand was published.

Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand.

Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand with Leratiomyces erythrocephalus on the cover.


All I know about Helen Dalrymple came from a ‘gallery of naturalists’ that Otago Museum has on its top floor in the old wing. If anyone has a photo of her I would love to see it [see PS below]. The museum exhibit had this to say:

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple (c. 1883-1943)

Was an enthusiastic botanist. She was born in Birmingham but spent her early years at Puerua, near Balclutha, where her father was Presbyterian minister. In 1898 she began attending Otago Girls High School, and in 1902 was awarded the Women’s Scholarship at Otago University. She graduated BA in 1906 and taught at Winton and Napier.

In 1913 she joined the staff of Otago Girls High School and taught English, Latin and Botany for 25 years. It is mainly as a botanist that she is remembered, particularly for her field trips, expeditiously arranging forays into the Town Belt to fit into an hour long lesson or longer excursions to Signal Hill in search of ground orchids.

Helen Dalrymple spent many hours on her delicate water colours, mainly of native plants, which she later used to illustrate her books, Orchid Hunting in Otago (1937) and Fungus Hunting in Otago (1940).

A keen member of the Naturalist Field Club she was regarded as a local authority on orchids and mycology. Gentle in speech and manner, she nevertheless had great determination and strength of character and when in 1915, and later in 1941, it was suggested that the club go into recess it was largely owing to her efforts that it kept going.

Display at Otago Museum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Display at Otago Museum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Miss Finlayson was afraid to open the box

I love Helen’s writing style and casualness and think if she was alive today she would be a blogger:

Earth stars are delightful objects. The first one I ever saw was picked up by an enthusiastic Field Clubber many years ago on his Sunday afternoon walk round the Town Belt. He put it carefully in a matchbox, took it to church that evening, and passed the box on to Miss Finlayson who happened to be sitting in the same seat. At first Miss Finlayson was afraid to open the box, thinking some strange insect might jump out; but finally she did and later handed the specimen over to me for recording.

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [by H.K. Dalrymple]

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [by H.K. Dalrymple]

Helen included a number of line drawings in her book the last was this view towards Otago Boys High with the tower visible above the bush. We went seeking this view but I think that Moana Pool has been built across it and this was the best I could do.

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [photo Geoff Ridley]

On the Town Belt, Dunedin [photo Geoff Ridley]


Dalrymple, HK, 1940. Fungus Hunting in Otago, New Zealand. Coulls Somerville Wilkie Limited, Dunedin

PS 18 September 2016

Conor sent a link to this picture of Helen Kirkland Dalrymple

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple [photo University of Otago]

Helen Kirkland Dalrymple [photo University of Otago]

The photo and the comment about her school field trips to the town belt remind me of Ronald Searle’s Belles of St Trinian’s cartoons.

[Ronald Searle , 1951]

[Ronald Searle , 1951]

Sheep milk and boletes

From the Gisborne Herald 20 August 2016:

A slow but certain interest in dairy sheep has started to build throughout New Zealand as some cornerstone corporate farmers cement the industry’s footing as a viable pastoral alternative to traditional land uses. … Globally the dairy sheep market is estimated to be worth US$8 billion at the farm gate …….

The Flock House homstead [photo]

The Flock House homstead [photo]

The summer of ’92

In the summer of 1992-1993 I was living and working at an AgResearch research farm, Flock House, in the Rangitikei. This was a period of massive restructuring in government science organisations and funding. It was the beginning of the modern period where incremental science became a dirty word and it was all about innovation and what would become ‘disruptive’ science.

Lambs on a modern litter system on a Landcorp farm near Taupo [photo Gerard Hutching]

Lambs on a modern litter system on a Landcorp farm near Taupo [photo Gerard Hutching]

One project the organisation was working on was the development of a flock of ewes for milking. To maintain lactation the lambs were removed from the ewes soon after birth. The lambs were kept in a big, covered, concrete floored yards to which my lab was attached. The floor of the yards had been boxed with slabs of untreated, rough cut Pinus radiata to create a bed that was about 20 cm deep. These beds were then filled with pine wood chips which formed a deep litter system to raise the lambs on. The wood chips absorbed the urine from the lambs.

A flash of yellow

After a few weeks of the lambs being penned on the litter I saw a bright yellow boletes growing on the wood chips. It completely confused me as at that time I only knew boletes to be mycorrhizal and not saprobic on wood. I could not identify it so filed it away.

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus from Flock House [picture Geoff Ridley]

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus from Flock House [picture Geoff Ridley]

I’ve seen you before!

That is until 2009 when I saw a picture of Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus in the Field Mycologist (Weightman, 2009). Here was a picture of a bright yellow bolete with the caption: “This painting of Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus is one of the earliest known of this rare species which grows on heaps of old sawdust“. And the text said of it:

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus (as Boletus sulfureus). An important early illustration of this rarity. It was sent from Brandon, Norfolk, Nov 3, 1876 by Plowright who probably also supplied the comment “from sawdust heaps only seen by Fries himself once”.

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus by Dr Henry Graves Bull, 1818-1885 [photo Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew]

Searching back through the literature I had to hand I found the comment: “Buchwaldoboletus (Boletaceae). This genus is world-wide although there are only a few constituent members; all grow generally on gymnospermic woods“. (Watling, 2002)

I have no doubt that I found my fungus. Given the bright yellow fruitbody it is surprising that we don’t see a lot more of this species in New Zealand. Particularly with the use of pine wood chip as garden much. A possibility is that it was the high nitrogen content in the litter from the lambs’ urine that triggered the fungus to fruit.

I also isolated managed to isolate it into culture and it has survived. It is slow growing and only forms a small mycelium and stains the media dark brown.

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus culture [photo Geoff Ridley]

Buchwaldoboletus sphaerocephalus culture [photo Geoff Ridley]

Further reading

Hutching G, 1996. New Zealand sheep milk gelato makes it to finals of global dairy awards.

Watling R, 2002. One bolete genus or …? Field Mycology 3: 84-88

Weightman J, 2009. Dr Bull’s paintings of fungi. Field Mycology 10: 113-121. [particularly p. 11]

Did the spoon turn black?

Looking around the internet I came across someone looking for information on whether or not the mushrooms he and his wife had collected were edible. One piece of advice he got was “my understanding is as long as they are brown on the underside they are sweet”. Combined with other observations this is a useful characteristic. On its own it could be deadly.

Agaricus field mushrooms [photo RimfireNZ]

Agaricus field mushrooms [photo RimfireNZ]

Wisest precautions

It reminded me of the advice that Henry Connor gave in The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand:

The possibility that a fungus may be toxic to man is ever present. Specific warnings are difficult to give and the wisest precautions are to exercise the greatest care and to establish the known record of any fungus before eating it.

Henry Connor [photo from The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand 1977]

Henry Connor [photo from The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand 1977]

Hoary old chestnuts

Henry then lists all of the hoary old chestnuts that people believed were used to test for edibility:

  • Appearance is no guide to edibility.
  • Odour is no guide to edibility.
  • Peeling of the cap does not mean edibility.
  • A sharp bitter taste is not characteristic of poisonous fungi.
  • Both poisonous and edible fungi may be viscid [means sticky or slimy].
  • Rapid change in colour when cut or broken is not a guide to edibility.
  • Green, red and white fungi are found among both poisonous and edible species.
  • Exudation of a milky fluid when broken is not characteristic of edible fungi only.
  • Fungi nibbled by rabbits and other animals are not necessarily safe for human consumption.
  • Fungi which are slug-eaten are not necessarily edible. Slugs thrive on Amanita phalloides [the death cap], the most poisonous fungi known.
  • Site of growth is no indication of edibility: for example mushrooms growing on highly manured places are not necessarily poisonous nor are those growing near rusty nails.
  • Fungi growing near serpents are not necessarily poisonous.
  • Blackening of a spoon, blackening of a silver coin, coagulation of milk, turning an onion bluish, turning an onion brown, and turning of parsley yellow are not safe indications of the presence of poisonous fungi. Fungi which do not act in any of these ways are not necessarily edible.”
Variation in colour within a single species [photo RimfireNZ]

Variation in colour within a single species [photo RimfireNZ]

Variation in form within a single species [photo RimfireNZ]

Variation in form within a single species [photo RimfireNZ]

This is the one that killed me

At the end of the day the best advice is

  1. Get a few good guide books that give good descriptions of the mushroom and the places it grows.
  2. Study the books and make sure you understand the terms that are being used.
  3. If possible seek advice from some one that has experience (in person or on-line).
  4. If in doubt then throw it out.

And if you are still unsure and go ahead and eat then leave some in the fridge labelled “this is the one that killed me”. That way we can all learn from your experience.

Further reading

Connor HE, 1977. The Poisonous Plants of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Bulletin 99.

Wikipedia, 2016. Henry Connor (botanist)