A wet Tuesday in April

 

Having noted the dry conditions for the Otari-Wiltons bush Fungal Foray last Sunday, 26 April 2015, Monday afternoon brought 40 – 50mm of rain across Wellington over the next 24 hour period. Having only seen collapsed and mummified mushrooms on Sunday here is what I saw walking home from the CBD through the Bolton Street Memorial Park and Wellington Botanic Garden.

In the lower section of the Bolton Street Memorial Park under a century old Pinus radiata  was this swarm of sticky-bun bolete [Suillus granulatus]. Read my earlier comments on this species here and here.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Suillus granulatus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Within a few centimetres of the sticky-bun boletes was the pine chalkcap [Russula amoenolens]. See my earlier comment about this species here.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

In the upper section of the Park Hebeloma crustuliniforme growing on a grave between the Seddon and the Holland Memorials at the top of the Robertson Way path.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Hebeloma crustuliniforme [photo Geoff Ridley]

On the edge of the Lady Norwood Rose Garden in the Botanic Garden there is a row of silver birches [Betula pendula]. Fruiting under the birches were a number of birch boletes [Leccinum scabrum] and another small group under birches in West Way path. I took both home to see if the internal tissues blued when exposed to air but there was no change – see here for previous discussion of this reaction. The other interesting this about these fruit bodies as the appear to have been scalped by something but I don’t know what.

Leccinum scabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Leccinum scabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Leccinum scabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Also growing with the birch boletes were common deceiver [Laccaria laccata].

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Laccaria laccata [photo Geoff Ridley]

There was a single scarlet flycap [Amanita muscaria] growing under the pines on the Pine Hill Path. I have included it here to show how variable the fruit bodies  can be. Here it is orange on the outer rim of the cap and red in the centre with only a few white warts toward edge of the cap. Compare this with the photos below of another scarlet flycap growing under silver birch on West Way path. Here the whole cap is deep red and thickly studded with white warts. It would be easy to think that we have found two different species.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Also growing under the birch  on West Way were birch rollrims. Since the 1calling Paxillus involutus but recent work in Europe has shown that there are a number of closely related species. It has turned out that the species in New Zealand is Paxillus cuprinus as it did not turn green when exposed to ammonia solution – the test used to separate it from the other species in New Zealand Paxillus ammoniavirescens.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Growing amongst the birch boletes were some small dark brown mushrooms that are a species of webcap [Cortinarius] possible somewhere around Cortinarius rigidus.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Cortinarius sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Growing on the grass, on the West Way, but not associated with trees was the field mushroom [Agaricus compestri]. note the pink gills which will turn dark brown as the spores on their surfaces mature.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

The scarlet pouch [Leratiomyces erythrocephalus = Weraroa erythrocephala] is a native species which taken advantage of the trend to mulch gardens as can be seen here growing on mulch under a specimen tree of Metasequoia glyptostroboides at the end of West Way.

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]


2015 Fungal Foray, Otari-Wilton’s Bush, 25-26 April 2015

Seventy(!) or so people met for the annual fungal foray walk through Otari-Wilton’s Bush today, Sunday 26 April 2015. And it was a typical Wellington day – windy and overcast.

000 2015.04.25

A track at Otari-Wilton’s Bush [photo Geoff Ridley]

Garlic shanklet [Mycetinis curraniae]

001 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp.

002 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Grey-gilled chalkcap [Russula inquinata]

003 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

 A small grey Mycena sp. on old punga

004 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Ruby helmet [Mycena viscidocruenta] note the cluster of three tiny white Mycena sp.

005 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Ruby helmet [Mycena viscidocruenta]

006 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Brown birdsnest [Crucibulum leave]

007 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Haresfoot inkcaps [Coprinopsis lagopus]

008 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

A mushroom [Agaricus sp.]

009 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella sp.

010 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Brown-umbrella inkcap [Parasola leiocephala]

011 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet roundhead [Leratiomyces ceres = Stropharia aurantiaca]

012 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Galerina sp.

013 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Possibly a roundhead Psathyrella microrhiza

014 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Possibly a roundhead Psathyrella microrhiza

015 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Wood-ear jelly [Auricularia cornea] and, although not in the picture, there was a single mushroom of the  porcelain slimecap [Oudemansiella australis].

032 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Sociable inkcap [Coprinellus disseminatus]

016 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

A mushroom [Agaricus sp.]

018 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Orange poreconch [Favolaschia calocera]

017 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Bush shank [Heimiomyces neovelutipes]

019 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Tree swordbelt [Agrocybe parasitica]. These specimens had seen better days but one eagle yeyed little bou spotted a nice fresh specimen.

020 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Native shiitake [Lentinellus novae-zelandiae]

021 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

A parasol [Lepiota sp.] – small pure white parasol

028 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouch [Weraroa erythrocephalus = Leratiomyces erythrocephalus]

029 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Psathyrella conopila

030 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Cloudy funnelcap [Clitocybe nebularis ]

022 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Giant-bush parasol [Macrolepiota clelandii]

027 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Wood-ear jelly [Auricularia cornea]

023 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Wood-ear jelly [Auricularia cornea] young

024 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

Crepidotus fuscovelutinus, my best guess at the moment, growing alongside the wood-ear jelly

025 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

026 2015.04.25

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

[photo Geoff Ridley]

031 2015.04.25

Metrosideros fulgens [photo Geoff Ridley]

 

 

 


Otari-Wilton’s Bush, 19 April 2015

Had my first foray to Otari-Wilton’s Bush last Sunday, 19 April 2015. The drought has broken but the rain has been episodic and torrential so not the best to the best conditions for mushrooms.

This small mushroom, the garlic shanklet [Mycetinis curraniae] is a perennial find  growing on the bark of a living totara [Podocarpus totara] just by the information centre.

01 2015.04.19

Mycetinis curraniae [photo Geoff Ridley]

 A single mushroom of a small white parasol [Lepiota sp.] growing at the base of a totara [Podocarpus totara].

02 2015.04.19

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

02b 2015.04.19

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Only a few centimetres from the white parasol was this buff coloured parasol [Lepiota sp.] with a scaly cap. I have recorded this one before but still have no name for it.

03 2015.04.19

Lepiota sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Near the Information Centre there is a stand of karaka [Corynocarpus laevigatus] which were ringbarked two or three years ago. These standing dead trees have produced large fruitings of wood-ear jelly [Auricularia cornea]

04 2015.04.19

Auricularia cornea [photo Geoff Ridley]

 There was a small group of grey-gilled chalkcap [Russula inquinata], a mycorrhizal species, growing under black beech [Nothofagus solandri]. Taste is a useful characteristic to separate Russula species tasting either acrid/hot/peppery or mild. The grey-gilled chalkcap is mild.

05 2015.04.19

Russula inquinata [photo Geoff Ridley]

06 2015.04.19

Russula inquinata [photo Geoff Ridley]

 All through the mulched gardens where harefoot inkcap [Coprinopsis lagopus]

07 2015.04.19

Coprinopsis lagopus [photo Geoff Ridley]

The orange poreconch [Favolaschia calocera] are only just begin to fruit and not as extensively as in previous years.

08 2015.04.19

Favolaschia calocera [photo Geoff Ridley]

Just off the track in the fernery I came across these small Melanotus sp. on dead branches.

09 2015.04.19

Melanotus sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

There is one particular log that regularly produces bush shank [Heimiomyces neovelutipes] however there was only one poor specimen on it this time.

10 2015.04.19

Heimiomyces neovelutipes [photo Geoff Ridley]

These big but old tree swordbelt [Agrocybe parasitica] were growing out of the base of a tawa [Beilschmiedia tawa].

11 2015.04.19

Agrocybe parasitica [photo Geoff Ridley]

The big log off the track near the fernery continues to produce its perennial crop of native shitake [Lentinellus novae-zelandiae].

12 2015.04.19

Lentinellus novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

13 2015.04.19

Lentinellus novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Weeping widow [Lacramaria lacrymabunda].

14 2015.04.19

Lacramaria lacrymabunda [photo Geoff Ridley]

Scarlet pouch [Weraroa erythrocephalus = Leratiomyces erythrocephalus]

15 2015.04.19

The little white spored mushroom was growing on woodchips. At this stage I haven’t worked out what it is.

16 2015.04.19

? [photo Geoff Ridley]

17 2015.04.19

? [photo Geoff Ridley]

 This little helmet was growing in the litter in the bush near the fernery. For want of a better name to give it I am going to tentatively refer it to Mycena parabolica as described by Marie Taylor.

18 2015.04.19

Mycena parabolica [photo Geoff Ridley]

19 2015.04.19

Mycena parabolica [photo Geoff Ridley]

 I don’t normally record bracket fungi but this bright orange Pycnoporus coccineus caught my attention.

20 2015.04.19

Pycnoporus coccineus [photo Geoff Ridley]

 The tea chalkcap [Russula novae-zelandiae] is mycorrhizal and was growing under kanaka [Kunzea ericoides].

21 2015.04.19

Russula novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

22 2015.04.19

Russula novae-zelandiae [photo Geoff Ridley]

 This is the bush giant parasol [Macrolepiota clelandii] and the first time that I have seen it at Otari-Wilton’s Bush. It was growing in a small  group under tawa and rewa rewa [Beilschmiedia tawa and Knightia excels]

23 2015.04.19

Macrolepiota clelandii [photo Geoff Ridley]

24 2015.04.19

Macrolepiota clelandii [photo Geoff Ridley]

25 2015.04.19

Macrolepiota clelandii [photo Geoff Ridley]

26 2015.04.19

Macrolepiota clelandii [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Cloudy funnelcap [Clitocybe nebularis ]

27 2015.04.19

Clitocybe nebularis [photo Geoff Ridley]


Time to get serious

It is time to stop the denial and admit the drought is over and the fungi season has started! Walking home from work yesterday dispelled that idea when I ran into a lot of old friends.

This large, 12cm across, birch bolete [Leccinum scabrum] growing under silver birch [Betula pendula] in the Bolton Street Memorial Park.

Leccinum scrabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leccinum scrabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leccinum scrabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Leccinum scrabrum [photo Geoff Ridley]

About 50cm away from the birch bolete and under the same tree was this group of red-cracked bolete [Xerocomus chrysenteron]. Although I have seen this species before it is the first time I have seen it here in this park. Note the blue staining on the bruised pores and on the cut tissue of the cap and stem.

Xerocomus chrysenteron [photo Geoff Ridley]

Xerocomus chrysenteron [photo Geoff Ridley]

Xerocomus chrysenteron [photo Geoff Ridley]

Xerocomus chrysenteron [photo Geoff Ridley]

Just beyond the Lady Norwood Rose Garden, in the Wellington Botanic Garden, on the steep bank between Anderson Park playing field and Glenmore St was this group of scarlet flycaps [Amanita muscaria].

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

The reason I am including this common species is that it usually ectomycorrhizal on exotic hardwoods or conifers. In this case it is growing under pohutukawa [Metrodideros excelsa] and totara [Podocarpus totara] – neither of which are ectomycorrhizal. The only exotic hardwood in the mix was a stunted hawthorn [Crataegus] however on a the edge of the playing fields is a row of small trees that I did not recognise. Turns out they are southern live oak [Quercus virginiana] and they are likely to be the mycorrhizal partner of the scarlet flycaps and an association I have not seen before.

Quercus virginiana [photo Geoff Ridley]

Quercus virginiana [photo Geoff Ridley]

Just beyond the Puriri Lawn in the formal garden was the first of the coral jelly [Tremellodendron sp.] on the ground under sugar maple [Acer saccharum]. The flowers are puriri [Vitex lucens].

Tremellodendron sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Tremellodendron sp. [photo Geoff Ridley]

Next to the sugar maple is a grove of European beech [Fagus sylvatica] and English oak [Quercus robur]. Growing under these was the oak chalkcap [Russula sororia]

Russula sororia [photo Geoff Ridley]

Russula sororia [photo Geoff Ridley]

The last stretch of the path up to the west entrance on Glenmore St there is a row of silver birches and fruiting under them was the birch rollrim [Paxillus involutus].

Paxillus involutus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Paxillus involutus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Paxillus involutus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Paxillus involutus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Also growing from the base of a silver birch, on dead wood, was the crumble inkcap [Coprinellus micaceus] .

Coprinellus micaceus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinellus micaceus [photo Geoff Ridley]

 


The autumn rains begin

I was down in Ashburton at the weekend and I saw these scarlet flycaps [Amanita muscaria] growing in the garden near the information centre on East St. They were growing under English oak [Quercus robur].

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Amanita muscaria [photo Geoff Ridley]

Tropical cyclone Pam followed by several fronts moving up off the Southern Ocean has brought significant rain to New Zealand this month. The rain has stirred the fungi in to activity.

Tropical Cyclone Pam

Tropical Cyclone Pam

Back in Wellington and walking through the Botanic Garden today there was a mixture of birch bolete [Leccinum scabrum, see blog 12 May 2012] and birch rollrim [Paxillus involutus, see blog 30 April 2013].


Autumn brings a little torrential rain

On Friday and Saturday, 6 and 7 March, Wellington had a couple of torrential downpours. It was probably too much too quickly for much of it to soak into the soil. And the dry warm weather is predicted to continue through March

Flooding on Brooklyn Road, Mount Cook, Wellington. [photo Rebecca Thomson]

Flooding on Brooklyn Road, Mount Cook, Wellington. [photo Rebecca Thomson]

The rain did bring a small flush of mushrooms in the fuchsa border in the Wellingon Botanic Garden. The fuchsia border is irrigated a couple of times a week so was primed and ready to go when the weather turned a bit cooler and wetter last Friday.

The main flush was a Psilocybe. It looks similar to Psilocybe subaeruginosa which is known to fruit in garden mulched with wood chips like the fuchsia border. Here the Psilocybe is fruiting amongst Fuchsia procumbens.

Psilocybe aff.  subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff. subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff.  subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff. subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Young fruitbodies of Psilocybe aff.  subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Young fruitbodies of Psilocybe aff. subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff.  subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff. subaeruginosa [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff.  subaeruginosa spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

Psilocybe aff. subaeruginosa spore print [photo Geoff Ridley]

 These specimens are similar in all features to Psilocybe subaeruginosa (Johnston and Buchanan, 1995)except that it does not bruise blue or green-blue when handled or crushed. I am not sure how universal this characteristic is for the species.

PS: Since publishing this blog Jerry Cooper has suggested that it might be Leratiomyces squamosus. These little brown and black  spored species are trying at the best of times. I had considered the genus Leratiomyces as there did not seem to be any substantial ring on the stem and no scales on the cap. I will have to keep an eye out for some new specimens.

Also seen again was the know very old fruitbody of Scleroderma albidum which featured in a blog six weeks ago (see here).

Scleroderma albidum [photo Geoff Ridley]

Scleroderma albidum [photo Geoff Ridley]

And a single mushroom of Harefoot inkcap [Coprinopsis lagopus].

Coprinopsis lagopus [photo Geoff Ridley]

Coprinopsis lagopus [photo Geoff Ridley]

 Reference

Donoghue T, 2015. More wild weather expected in central New Zealand Stuff.co.nz Link here

Johnston PR, Buchanan PK, 1995. The genus Psilocybe (Agaricales) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 33: 379-388. Link here

 

 


False chanterelles, drought, and astronauts

NASA released this incredible photo of New Zealand showing the top of the South Island (to the left in the photo) and the lower North Island (to the right) taken on the 24 of January 2015. Being the land of the ‘long white cloud’ photos like this are rare as much of the country is obscured by cloud.  Also the astronauts on the International Space Station are usually asleep when passing over New Zealand!

New Zealand from the international Space Station [photo NASA ISS042-E-178671]

New Zealand from the international Space Station [photo NASA ISS042-E-178671]

As I have said in earlier blogs New Zealand is deep in drought which is easily seen in this photo I took near Lincoln on the Canterbury Plains while there last week. Not at all mushroom collecting weather.

Drought on the Canterbury Plain, near Lincoln [photo Geoff Ridley]

Drought on the Canterbury Plain, near Lincoln [photo Geoff Ridley]

On Saturday we went out along State Highway 72 which runs north-south along the western side of the Canterbury Plains and the foothills of the Southern Alps. We had a brief stop at Stavely and and walked some of the Sharplin Falls track (note: just to the left of the S in satellite photo above). We couldn’t get to the falls due to a rock fall.

Bridge at the start of the Sharplin Falls' Track [photo Geoff Ridley]

Bridge at the start of the Sharplin Falls’ Track [photo Geoff Ridley]

In contrast the dry plains to the east the foot hills carry native forest including southern beech. Along the track it was black beech (Nothofagus solandi now known as Fuscospora solandri). The forest here was damp underfoot however it is still generally too early for mushrooms.

Southern beech forest, Sharplin Falls [photo Geoff Ridley]

Southern beech forest, Sharplin Falls [photo Geoff Ridley]

However just to remind me that “seek, ye shall find” I came across this group of mushrooms fruiting from a deep and damp moss mound. It is a false chanterelle.

Hygrophoropsis coacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta [photo Geoff Ridley]

Ross MacNabb named this as a new species, Hygrophoropsis coacta, in 1969. He described it’s cap as slightly curved when young and becoming depressed or slightly funnel shaped when mature, 1.5-5 cm diameter, smooth or at most very finely felted, and pallid yellow, pallid orange-yellow, or pallid apricot. One remarkable characteristic is the gills which run down the stem, are forked, and are orange in colour.

Hygrophoropsis coacta, top of cap [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta, top of cap [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta, forked orange gills [photo Geoff Ridley]

Hygrophoropsis coacta, forked orange gills [photo Geoff Ridley]

Ross McNabb considered it different enough from the European species Hygrophoropsis aurantiaca to be a separate species. However Egon Horak in 1979 did not agree and said that H.coacta was the same as H.aurantiaca, which made H.aurantiaca pan-global occurring on every continent. This seems unlikely and I think that it is worth keeping H.coacta as a separate species until better evidence is available.

Hygrophoropsis coacta does not seem to have been seen often and Shirley Kerr has a nice photo of it at her Exploring the Kaimai Bush website.

References

Horak E, 1979. Paxilloid Agaricales in Australasia. Sydowia 32: 154-166.

McNabb, RFR, 1969. The Paxillaceae of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 7: 349-362. See here


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